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Astro DB: Migrating my analytics data from Vercel Postgres

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Why migrate?

A few months ago I wrote about setting up Basic analytics with Vercel Postgres - Drizzle - Astro. At the time I chose Vercel Postgres as a database because it had an ok free tier, and I thought it was easy to manage all my hosted tools in one place. But earlier this month the Astro team announced Astro DB, a fully managed (lib)SQL database. They partnered with Turso to provide very generous free tiers with infinite scalability. I was immediately sold!

Setting up Astro DB

As with every Astro feature, you can just run npx astro add db, and all dependencies and configurations will be put into place for you. Once this is done, you can define and seed your database.

import { column, defineDb, defineTable } from "astro:db";
export const PageView = defineTable({
columns: {
url: column.text(),
indexes: {
url_idx: { on: ["url"], unique: false },
date_idx: { on: ["date"], unique: false },
export default defineDb({
tables: { PageView },
import { db, PageView } from "astro:db";
export default async function () {
await db.insert(PageView).values([
{ date: new Date(), url: "/" },
{ date: new Date(new Date().getTime() - 1000), url: "/test" },

During development, whenever you start your development server, a new database is created locally and will contain the data from your db/seed.ts file.

Migrating data from Vercel Postgres to Astro DB

I didn’t want to spend too much time on the code for this functionality, and since Vercel doesn’t provide the functionality to export the database, I created an API route in my Astro app where I query the Vercel postgres database, and then write the resulting dataset to Astro DB. This could probably be done in a more efficient way using batching or transactions, but databases aren’t my specialty, so I didn’t dive into it deeper.

export const prerender = false;
import type { APIRoute } from "astro";
import { db, asc, gt, PageView } from "astro:db";
import { PageViewsTable, client } from "~/lib/dbClient";
export const GET: APIRoute = async () => {
try {
const entries = await client
.where(gt(, new Date("2024-01-16")));
for (const entry of entries) {
await db.insert(PageView).values({ url: entry.url, date: });
} catch (e) {
return new Response(
error: "Error updating views",
{ status: 400 },
return new Response(
message: "Succesfully updated views",
{ status: 200 },

Due to the fact that I had around 30k views to migrate, my function timed out a few times, and I had to find out what the date of the last migrated entry was, to know what to use as the greater than value for my query to Vercel Postgres.

Querying Astro DB

Now that I’ve got data in Astro DB, I can start with the fun part, querying the data! To query your database and to insert data into it, you’ll be using Drizzle, a type-safe ORM which is built into Astro. This was great news for me, since I already used Drizzle in my previous implementation with Vercel Postgres. You can import db and start querying right away, all with full TypeScript support. An example where I query the count of page views for a certain URL:

import { PageView, eq, db, count } from "astro:db";
const viewCount = await db
.select({ value: count() })
.where(eq(PageView.url, url));

The return type here will be inferred automatically and would look like:

value: number;

Inserting data into Astro DB

Inserting is as easy as it gets, just call db.insert() and off you go. On the inserts, Drizzle will check the types of the values being passed to it again, so if you’d send a number for the url field, this would fail, since it’s expecting a string.

await db.insert(PageView).values({
url: body.url,
date: new Date(),


Since Drizzle abstracts away the differences between Postgres & LibSQL behind the scenes, I didn’t have to change much to my queries. This made the migration very easy. Having the type-safety of Drizzle, I could just do the changes and do a quick type-check to see if any TS errors popped up, if there weren’t any, I was done. Now the migration’s done, I don’t have to worry about hitting the limits of the free tier anywhere soon, and the DX got even better, double win! If you want to see the changes I had to do to move from Vercel Postgres to Astro DB in code, you can check this compare. You’ll see a lot of the changed files are from moving my pages/page-views route to a static route, and handling all the data fetching for it on the client side. This was mainly done to avoid seeing an empty page for too long while server rendering the dataset.

Hope you like it, now go give it a try! GitHub code Live site

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